Michael S. Heiser (M.A., Ancient History, University of Pennsylvania; M.A., Ph.D., Hebrew Bible and Semitic Studies, University of Wisconsin-Madison) taught at the college level for twelve years before accepting a position at Logos Bible Software with a focus on producing ancient text databases and other digital resources for study of the ancient world and biblical studies. He is now the Scholar-in-Residence at Logos and a regular contributor to parent company Faithlife’s Bible Study Magazine. He has published widely in scholarly journals and popular periodicals and teaches ancient languages online at MEMRA.
It is common for scholars to assert that the religion of the writers of the Hebrew Bible was not originally monotheistic. The notion of a divine council that included multiple elohim (“gods”), found in several OT passages, is put forth as proof for this idea. As orthodox Israelite religion achieved the breakthrough of monotheism, we are told, references in […]